Sessions & Descriptions

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Chemical Engineering deals with considering and designing the processes starting with experimentation in the lab took after by execution of the innovation in full-scale creation. Chemical engineering involves the study of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, construction specification and operating instructions. chemical reaction engineering includes sorting out plant procedures and conditions to guarantee ideal plant operation to develop models for reactor process outline and investigation. Numerous uses in everyday life like elastic, plastic, concrete, sugar, detergents, the major key factor of our daily life which is petrolium and so on

 

A catalyst is another substance than reactants products added to a reaction system to alter the speed of a chemical reaction approaching a chemical equilibrium. It interacts with the reactants in a cyclic manner promoting perhaps many reactions at the atomic or molecular level, but it is not consumed. Another reason for using a catalyst is that it promote the production of a selected product. A catalyst that is in a separate phase from the reactants is said to be a heterogeneous, or contact, catalyst. Contact catalysts are materials with the capability of adsorbing molecules of gases or liquids onto their surfaces. An example of heterogeneous catalysis is the use of finely divided platinum to catalyze the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. This reaction is used in catalytic converters mounted in automobiles to eliminate carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases.

 

A catalyst is another substance than reactants products added to a reaction system to alter the speed of a chemical reaction approaching a chemical equilibrium. It interacts with the reactants in a cyclic manner promoting perhaps many reactions at the atomic or molecular level, but it is not consumed. Another reason for using a catalyst is that it promote the production of a selected product. A catalyst that is in a separate phase from the reactants is said to be a heterogeneous, or contact, catalyst. Contact catalysts are materials with the capability of adsorbing molecules of gases or liquids onto their surfaces. An example of heterogeneous catalysis is the use of finely divided platinum to catalyze the reaction of carbon monoxide with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. This reaction is used in catalytic converters mounted in automobiles to eliminate carbon monoxide from the exhaust gases.

 

Large diversities of solid-state materials libraries are prepared, processed, and tested for activity and selectivity in a high-throughput fashion.

• speeds up the pace of research 

• the chances of discovery of totally new and unexpected catalytic materials are increased 

• use of systematically acquired data and data-mining technologies

• discovery of trends and patterns of structure–activity relations from large database

Solid catalysts are used in the manufacture of a vast array of chemicals and fuels, and as such significantly contribute to our economy and high living standards. [1, 2] Catalysts are used in the production of over 7000 compounds worth over $3 trillion globally. Catalyst-based manufacturing accounts for about 60% of chemicals production and 90% of processes. [1] These figures will likely increase in the future as a result of increasing pressures for the development of environmentally friendly manufacturing processes . The economic benefits of an efficient catalyst are enormous: catalytic processes are less capital intensive, have lower operating costs, produce higher purity products and fewer by-products.

 

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is the use of applied mathematics, physics and computational software to visualize how a gas or liquid flows, as well as how the gas or liquid affects objects as it flows past. Computational fluid dynamics is based on the Navier-Stokes equations. These equations describe how the velocity, pressure, temperature, and density of a moving fluid are related. It also uses numerical analysis and data structures to solve and analyse problems that involve fluid flows.

 

The branch of engineering that handles with the technology of large-scale chemical production and the manufacture of products through chemical process. The Modern products of chemistry lead to cutting edge advancements applied technology in medical devices, aerospace, computing, fuels and more. As technology advances our nation’s primary chemicals management law must be updated to adapt to scientific progress and to promote that chemical products are safe for intended use. Chemistry Usage in Nanotechnology has many diverse applications, some of which include delivering drugs to specific cells, and repairing of damaged human tissue, improving efficiency of solar energy production and enabling both lighter, higher performance plastics for aerospace, construction and vehicles. Chemistry in the Space Age Aerospace needs the products of chemistry such as plastic space suits that can withstand 600-degree (Fahrenheit) temperature ranges. Chemistry in Computing has widespread use of touch screens, enabled by plastics, adhesives and other products of chemical technology are employed on cell phones, PDAs, computer screens. The global construction chemicals market (2015–2020) is estimated to reach USD 33.98 Billion by 2020 increasing at a rate of 7.62% between 2015 and 2020.

 

The scientific study with the aspect of chemistry which deals with the structure, properties and reactions of the organic matter which is nothing but the matters which contains atleast one carbon atoms in their chemical structure. Organic chemistry is useful in the field of medicine,pesticides,textiles, petrolium etc. Organic chemistry is key which enables us to analyze a substance to its elemental stage. It helps to test a compound for impurities and processes like chromatography and to completely analyze a substance.Not only for the artificial compounds we produce, but also to synthesize naturally occurring substances in large quantities, Organic Chemistry enables us to recreate the required substance in quantities we need with various processes.

 

Biochemical Engineering is the application of chemical engineering methods and approaches to industrial processes based on biological elements such as living cells or their components. Microbes and enzymes for example are used to produce useful chemical compounds such as antibiotics, other medically useful chemicals, detergents, amino acids, etc. Biochemical engineers translate exciting discoveries in life sciences into practical materials and processes contributing to human health and well-being. It deals with the design and construction of unit operations that involve biological organisms or molecules, such as bioreactors. A bioreactor may also refer to a device meant to grow cells or tissues in the ambience of cell culture. These devices are being developed for use in tissue engineering or biochemical engineering. Different types of Bioreactors are Photo bioreactor, Sewage treatment, Up and Down agitation bioreactor, NASA tissue cloning bioreactor, Moss bioreactor. Its applications are in the petrochemical industry, food and pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and water treatment industries. Orthopaedic applications form the largest division of the overall biomaterials market. Polymer-based biomaterials are expected to initiate the next wave of market growth; and the future biochips and biosensors business segments also offer huge growth potential.

 

Electrochemical technologies are an integral part of modern life. Because electrochemical reactions are coupled to electrical current, their rates are relatively easy to measure, control, and to exploit for work. Thus, methods based on electrochemical phenomena are ideal for sensors, energy storage and conversion, and microfabrication processes. Furthermore, the use of electricity for oxidation and reduction may allow clean production of chemicals. Concepts used to scale electrochemical systems are both similar to and different from those used for chemical systems.The principles of cells are used to make electrical batteries. In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores chemical energy and makes it available in an electrical form. Batteries are made of electrochemical devices such as one or more galvanic cells or fuel cells.

 

Chemical reaction engineering involves organising plant processes and conditions to ensure optimal plant operation to construct models for reactor process design and analysis. Many applications of chemical engineering involves in day to day life like rubber, plastic, cement, sugar, ceramic etc.

  1. Multiphase flow and reactors
  2. Chemical Reactors and photochemical Reactors
  3. Micro-reactors

 

Nanotechnology catalytical techniques are having a profound impact on clean energy research and development, ranging from hydrogen and liquid fuel production to clean combustion technologies. In this area, catalyst stability is paramount for technical application, and remains a major challenge, even for many conventional catalysts.Thermal stability in particular is a challenge across many currently discussed technical applications and an obstacle for many nanocatalyst-enabled devices, from sensors to fuel production. In particular fuel processing technologies (hydrogen and/or liquid fuel production from fossil and renewable resources, clean combustion) typically proceed at particularly severe conditions (high temperatures, high through-put, contaminated fuel streams, etc) and hence require particular attention to catalyst stabilization, but even many processes at much lower temperature conditions, such as fuel cells, are still looking for catalysts with improved stability.

 

Renewable energy source is vitality that is gathered from renewable resources, which are normally renewed on a human timescale, for example, daylight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heatRenewable energy source frequently gives vitality in four vital regions: electricity generation, air and water heating /cooling, transportation, and rural energy services. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency is bringing about significant energy security, environmental change relief, and economic benefits. Renewable energy source frameworks are quickly ending up more productive and less expensive.

 

Infrared (IR) spectroscopy undoubtedly represents one of the most important tools in catalysis research. In this review, recent catalytic applications of the most popular IR techniques will be presented. Each section starts from the very general basis of the spectroscopic method applied. The last section is devoted to the adsorption of chelating compounds on surfaces of mineral oxides.

 

Polymerization is the process of combination of many small biochemical  molecules known as monomers into a covalently bonded chain. During the polymerization  process, few chemical groups may be lost from each monomer. Polymer Technology is nothing but the manufacture, processing, analysing and application of long chain molecules. Plastics, paints, rubber, foams, adhesives, sealants, varnishes are the materials that are said to be polymers.Nowadays all these polymer products became very essential as we depend on these polymers for our daily day to day life. The industries that makes use of the polymers are information technology, aerospace, music, clothing, medical , motor manufacturing, building, packaging, etc.

 

Petrochemicals are chemical products developed from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are also obtained from fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas , and renewable sources such as corn or sugar cane. The most common petrochemicals are olefins and aromatics (including benzene, toluene and xylene isomers), Synthesis gas. Oil refineries produce olefins and aromatics by method of fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by a steam cracking of natural gas liquids like ethane and propane. Aromatics are produced by a process of catalytic reforming of naphtha. Petroleum refining processes are nothing but chemical engineering processes used in petroleum refineries to change crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline, petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils.

 

Heat is defined in physics as the transfer of thermal energy across a well-defined boundary around a thermodynamic system. The thermodynamic free energy is the amount of work that a thermodynamic system can perform. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter "H", that is the sum of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (P) and volume (V). Joule is a unit to quantify energy, work, or the amount of heat. Heat transfer is a process function (or path function), as opposed to functions of state; therefore, the amount of heat transferred in a thermodynamic process that changes the state of a system depends on how that process occurs, not only the net difference between the initial and final states of the process. Thermodynamic and mechanical heat transfer is calculated with the heat transfer coefficient, the proportionality between the heat flux and the thermodynamic driving force for the flow of heat. Heat flux is a quantitative, vectorial representation of heat-flow through a surface.

 

Zeolites are the most important heterogeneous catalysts with numerous large-scale applications including cracking, petrochemistry, fine chemical synthesis, and environmental protection. This themed issue evidences the significant impact of zeolites in catalysis, new trends in catalytic applications of zeolites and, in particular, their potential in catalysis. Zeolitesis used as catalysts in petrochemical industries for cracking of hydrocarbons and isomerization. An important zeolite catalyst used in the petroleum industry is ZSM-5. It converts alcohols directly into gasoline(petrol) by dehydrating them to give a mixture of hydrocarbons. Electron microscopic investigations of zeolites are reviewed. Scanning electron microscopy can show the appearance of zeolite crystals, e.g. their sizes and morphologies, and can also be used to look into the cores of crystals  revealing any abnormal microstructures, which often help us to elucidate actual crystal growth mechanisms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy is a powerful tool to directly image many pore systems and local defects in zeolites.

 

  1. In the chemical industry and industrial research, catalysis assume an essential part. Distinctive catalysts are in consistent advancement to satisfy financial, political and natural requests. When utilizing catalyst, it is conceivable to replace a contaminating chemical reaction with an all the more environmentally friendly alternative. Today, and in future, this can be crucial for the chemical industry. For an organization, a new and improved catalyst can be an enormous preferred standpoint for a competitive assembling cost. It's amazingly costly for an organization to shut down the plant because of a blunder in the catalyst, so the right choice of a catalyst or another change can be critical to industrial achievement.