Sessions & Descriptions

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Materials Science and Engineering is an acclaimed scientific discipline, expanding in recent decades to surround polymers, ceramics, glass, composite materials and biomaterials. Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials.  Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limitations of the materials that are available and, as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists lay stress on understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, and thus its properties and performance. All engineered products from airplanes to musical instruments, alternative energy sources related to ecologically-friendly manufacturing processes, medical devices to artificial tissues, computer chips to data storage devices and many more are made from materials.  In fact, all new and altered materials are often at the heart of product innovation in highly diverse applications. The global market is projected to reach $6,000 million by 2020 and lodge a CAGR of 10.2% between 2015 and 2020 in terms of worth. The North American region remains the largest market, accompanied by Asia-Pacific. The Europe market is estimated to be growth at a steady rate due to economic redeem in the region along with the expanding concern for the building insulation and energy savings.

 

Nanotechnology is the handling of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.  The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers. Materials scientists and engineers work to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at the nanoscale level. The field of materials science covers the discovery, characterization, properties, and use of nanoscale materials. Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, influencing advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Materials with structure at the nanoscale level o have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties. Although much of nanotechnology's potential still remains un-utilized, investment in the field is booming. The U.S. government distributed more than a billion dollars to nanotechnology research in 2005 to find new developments in nanotechnology. China, Japan and the European Union have spent similar amounts. The hopes are the same on all fronts: to push oneself off a surface on a growing global market that the National Science Foundation estimates will be worth a trillion dollars. The global market for activated carbon totaled $1.9 billion, in 2013, driven primarily by Asia-Pacific and North American region for applications in water treatment and air purification.

 

The most interesting about nanotechnology is that materials have a property of changing size scale of their dimensions into nanometres. New techniques to create Nano phase materials have arisen in the development of new class of materials. For instance, a Nano phase material with an average grain size of 5nm has about 50% of the atoms within the first two nearest neighbour planes of a grain boundary in which significant displacements from normal lattice positions are displaced. The basic idea being to produce new disordered solid which contains a high density of defect cores whose 50% or more of the atoms reside in the core of the defects.

 

This provides new, innovative materials required for the transition to a sustainable energy system. This area includes fundamental studies into potential materials for photovoltaic, fuel cell, semiconductors for future energy uses. This area only includes research into the materials systems for present and future technologies for energy. The view of material for energy application profile is to improve the sustainable energy system and to make world identified in contributing energy.

 

The technology of shaping oldest materials is called metal casting. Casting means molten metal is pouring into a mold with an orbit of the shape to be created, and allowing it to solidify. When solidified, the required metal object is taken out from the mold either by fragmentation of the mold or by taking the mold apart. The solidified object is called the casting. The metal casting industry plays a key role in all the major sectors of economy. There are castings sectors like in locomotives, cars trucks, aircraft, office buildings, factories, schools, and homes.

 

In the search for alternative energy sources, we need to make new discoveries in materials science. We need catalysts to convert feed stocks into fuels, new architectures for better solar cells and materials for advanced energy storage, including lithium batteries. New high-tech materials are key to breakthroughs in biology, the environment, nuclear energy, transportation and national security. Energy Materials is making revolutionary advances in the science of materials discovery and synthesis. Our ultimate goal is to be able to design new materials with useful properties—one atom at a time. Whereas the 19th century was the century of the steam engine and the 20th century was the century of the internal combustion engine, it is likely that the 21st century will be the century of the fuel cell. Fuel cells are now on the verge of being introduced commercially, revolutionizing the way we presently produce power. Fuel cells can use hydrogen as a fuel, offering the prospect of supplying the world with clean, sustainable electrical power. This Track discusses the history of fuel cells, fuel cells for NASA, alkaline fuel cells for terrestrial applications and PEM fuel cells. Fuel cell applications in transportation, distributed power generation, residential and portable power are discussed. The science of the PEM fuel cell and the direct methanol fuel cell will be discussed.

 

Smart materials are those materials which have properties to react to changes in their environment. This means that one of their properties can be changed by an external condition such as light, pressure, temperature. So Smart Materials are defined as "Materials that can significantly change their mechanical, thermal, optical, or electromagnetic properties, in a predictable or controllable manner in response to their environment" as there are many possibilities for such materials and structures in the manmade world many innovations are happening in the field of material science that are enough smart to help human beings in an any of the ways like structural health monitoring, self-repair, defence and Space, Nuclear Industries, Reducing wastes. Smart materials also have many applications in different fields of medicine and engineering and the rise in demand for the smart materials is enough to believe that there is a great scope for the smart materials in the future.Modelling, Simulation and Control of Smart Materials, Metamaterials are made from assemblies of multiple elements fashioned from composite materials such as metals or plastics. The materials are usually arranged in repeating patterns, at scales that are smaller than the wavelengths of the phenomena they influence. Metamaterials derive their properties not from the properties of the base materials, but from their newly designed structures. Their precise shape, geometry, size, orientation and arrangement gives them their smart properties capable of manipulating electromagnetic waves: by blocking, absorbing, enhancing, or bending waves, to achieve benefits that go beyond what is possible with conventional materials.

 

Materials Charecterization refers to a wider process by which a structure and properties of materials are checked and measured. It is a fundamental process in the field of materials science, without which no scientific understanding of engineering materials could be as curtained. Spectroscopy refers to the measurement of radiation intensity as a function of wavelength. Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye.   Characterization and testing of materials is essential before the use of materials. Testing of material can make the material more adaptable and durable.

 

Corrosion is a natural process, which converts a refined metal to a more chemically-stable form, such as its oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usual metals) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Corrosion engineering is the field dedicated to controlling and stopping corrosion. In the most common use of the word, this means electrochemical oxidation of metal in reaction with an oxidant such as oxygen or sulfur. Rusting, the formation of iron oxides is a well-known example of electrochemical corrosion. Metals and alloys are materials that are typically hard, malleable, and have good electrical and thermal conductivity. Alloys are made by melting two or more elements together, at least one of them a metal. They have properties that improve those of the constituent elements, such greater strength or resistance to corrosion.

 

The advancements that enabled the betterment of living standards of people in the past few decades are the result of innovations that happened through Materials Science and Materials Chemistry engineering. They are developing at a pace that is unmatchable to any other field. Materials Chemistry directs towards the architecture and amalgamation of materials of higher potential, using the concepts of Physical chemistry. These materials carry magnetic, electronic, catalytic or organic uniqueness. These inventions led to the development of upgraded fabrication techniques. Structure plays an essential role in this stream. The materials have different types of structures, beginning from the atomic level to the macro level. They include organic structures and electronic bonded structures as well. The strength of bond and structure depend on the molecular mechanics of atoms and bonds related.

 

The study of physical and chemical process that rises by incorporation of two phases, with solid–liquid/ solid–gas/ solid–vacuum/ liquid–gas interfaces is named as Surface Science. The actual application of surface science in related arenas like chemistry, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and physics is recognized as Surface Engineering. Surface Chemistry achieves the alteration of chemical configuration of a surface by presenting functional groups and additional elements while Surface physics deals with the physical deviations that arise at interfaces. Techniques tangled in Surface engineering are spectroscopy methods such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, electron energy loss spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, Thermal desorption spectroscopy, ion scattering spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry, etc. The chemical reactions at the interface is generally termed as Surface Chemistry and is also linked to surface engineering. It is very significant in the arenas of heterogenous catalysis, electrochemistry and geochemistry.

 

A clay material is an inorganic, non-metallic, often crystalline compound, compound or inorganic compound material. Some parts, for instance, carbon or semiconducting material, can be thought of ceramic ware production. ceramic ware materials area unit fragile, hard, and solid in pressure, feeble in cut and strain. Creative materials area unit used as a region of hardware on the grounds that, contingent upon their synthesis, they could be semi conductive, superconducting, Ferroelectric, or a setup. Composite materials have extraordinary physical or substance properties. Composite materials area unit by and huge used for structures, scaffolds, and structures, for instance, pontoon frames, natatorium boards, hustling car bodies, the foremost exceptional cases perform habitually on shuttle and flying machine in requesting things. The composite materials area unit often organized visible of lattice constituent. The numerous composite categories incorporate organic matrix composites metal matrix composites and ceramic matrix composites.

 

Biomaterials fill in as a vital segment of tissue designing. They are intended to give structural system reminiscent of local extracellular framework with a specific end goal to energize cell development and inevitable tissue recovery. Tissue building can possibly accomplish this by joining materials outline and designing with cell treatment. Biomaterials can give physical backings to built tissues and ground-breaking geographical and concoction prompts to manage cells. Biomaterials designing includes combination, preparing, and characterization of novel materials, including polymers, proteins, glasses, concretes, composites and half and halves. The exemplary worldview depends on a blend of biomaterial platforms, cells, and bioactive particles to arrange tissue development and combination inside the host condition

 

Materials which can be magnetized and attracted to a magnet are termed as ferromagnetic materials. These kind of ferromagnetic materials comprise of iron, nickel, cobalt, some alloys of rare earth metals, and some naturally occurring minerals such as lodestone. Magnetic Smart Materials also have medical applications and it is predictable that they will increase in the future. Examples are carrying medications to exact locations within the body and the use as a contrasting agent for MRI scans, evaluating the risk of organ damage in hereditary hemochromatosis, defining the dose of iron chelator drugs mandatory for patients with thalassemia, and Now-a-days Scientists are also occupied on the advancement of synthetic magnetic particles which can be inoculated into the human body for the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Spintronic, also known as spin electronics or fluxtronics, is the study of the intrinsic spin of the electron and its related magnetic moment, in addition to its vital electronic charge, in solid-state devices.

Instrumentation technology refers to devices that measure or control pressure, flow, currents and speed for gas, electrical, chemical and other systems. Instrumentation technology programs prepare students for careers installing, maintaining and repairing control equipment used in a variety of industries. The industrial application of electricity required instruments to measure current, voltage, and resistance. Analytical methods, using such instruments as the microscope and the spectroscope, became increasingly important; the latter instrument, which analyzes by wave length the light radiation given off by incandescent substances, began to be used to identify the composition of chemical substances and stars.

 

 

Polymers will be the material of the new thousand years and the creation of polymeric parts i.e. green, vitality productive, superb, low-estimated and high supportability, and so on will guarantee the openness of the best arrangements round the globe. Manufactured polymers have since quite a while assumed a generally essential part in display day restorative practice. Polymers are currently a noteworthy materials utilized as a part of numerous modern applications. The expectation of their conduct relies upon our comprehension of these intricate frameworks. Polymerization and polymer handling systems in this way requires atomic displaying methods. As occurs in every single test science, comprehension of complex physical marvels requires displaying the framework by concentrating on just those angles that are as far as anyone knows pertinent to the watched conduct. Once a reasonable model has been recognized, it must be approved by comprehending it and contrasting its forecasts and investigations. Settling the model as a rule requires approximations.

 

Materials Science and Engineering is an acclaimed scientific discipline, expanding in recent decades to surround polymers, ceramics, glass, composite materials and biomaterials. Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials.  Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limitations of the materials that are available and, as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists lay stress on understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, and thus its properties and performance. All engineered products from airplanes to musical instruments, alternative energy sources related to ecologically-friendly manufacturing processes, medical devices to artificial tissues, computer chips to data storage devices and many more are made from materials.  In fact, all new and altered materials are often at the heart of product innovation in highly diverse applications.

 

Graphene was the first 2D material to be isolated. Graphene and other two-dimensional materials have a long list of unique properties that have made it a hot topic for intense scientific research and the development of technological applications. These also have huge potential in their own right or in combination with Graphene. The extraordinary physical properties of Graphene and other 2D materials have the potential to both enhance existing technologies and also create a range of new applications. Pure Graphene has an exceptionally wide range of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. Graphene can also greatly improve the thermal conductivity of a material improving heat dissipation. In applications which require very high electrical conductivity Graphene can either be used by itself or as an additive to other materials. Even in very low concentrations Graphene can greatly enhance the ability of electrical charge to flow in a material. Graphene’s ability to store electrical energy at very high densities is exceptional. This attribute, added to its ability to rapidly charge and discharge, makes it suitable for energy storage applications.

 

The Nano composite is a multiphase solid material where one of the stages has one, a few measurements of under 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano-scale rehash separates between the distinctive stages that make up the material. In the broadest sense, this definition can incorporate permeable media, colloids, gels and copolymers, yet is all the more typically interpreted as meaning the solid blend of a mass lattice and nano-dimensional stages contrasting in properties because of dissimilarities in structure and science. The mechanical, electrical, warm, optical, electrochemical, reactant properties of the Nano composite will contrast uniquely from that of the segment materials. Measure limits for these impacts have been proposed, <5 nm for reactant action, <20 nm for making a hard attractive material delicate, <50 nm for refractive list changes, and <100 nm for accomplishing super paramagnetic, mechanical reinforcing or confining network separation development.

 

The self-assembly paradigm in chemistry, physics and biology has matured scientifically over the past two-decades to a point of sophistication that one can begin to exploit its numerous attributes in nanofabrication. Scientists have tailored extremely small wires that carry light and electrons. These new structures could open up a potential path to smaller, lighter, or more efficient devices, they say. Nanomaterials and micro/nanodevices are the key components in micro/nanosystems. The wafer-scale integration of nanostructures into micro/nanosystems is highly important for applications of nanostructures. Also, the efficient characterization techniques, especially in situ characterization, are essentially required for investigation and development of nanostructures and micro/nanodevices.

 

Nanomedicine is the application of technology to do everything from drug delivery to the repairing of cells. It is the application of tiny machines to the treatment and prevention of disease. Nanorobots are advancements in Nanomedicine as miniature surgeons. These machines help repair damaged cells they replicate themselves, correct genetic deficiencies by replacing or altering DNA molecules. For example artificial antibodies, antiviral, Nanorobots, artificial white and red Blood cells. These Nanomachines could affect the behaviour of individual cells. Hormones or Dispense drugs as needed in people with deficiency states or chronic imbalance can be solved using implanted Nanotechnology devices. Biomedical Engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for healthcare purposes, Biomedical engineering has recently emerged as its own study, as compared to many other engineering fields. Such an evolution is common as a new field transition from being an interdisciplinary specialization among already-established fields, to being considered a field in itself.

 

Nanotechnology is becoming a crucial driving force behind innovation in medicine and healthcare, with a range of advances including nanoscale therapeutics, biosensors, implantable devices, drug delivery systems, and imaging technologies. Accurate and early diagnosis of disease remains one of the greatest challenges of modern medicine. As with any advance in diagnostics, the ultimate goal is to enable physicians to identify a disease as early as possible. Nanotechnology is expected to make diagnosis possible at the cellular and even the sub-cellular level with enhanced imaging techniques and high-performance sensors. Nanotechnology can be used to develop devices that indicate when those markers appear in the body and that deliver agents to reverse premalignant changes or to kill those cells that have the potential to become malignant.

 

Graphenated Carbon Nanotubes are a new hybrid that combines graphitic foliates grown with sidewalls of bamboo style CNTs. It has a high surface area with a 3D framework of CNTs coupled with high edge density of graphene. Chemical modification of carbon nanotubes are covalent and non-covalent modifications due to their hydrophobic nature and improve adhesion to a bulk polymer through chemical attachment. Applications of the carbon nanotubes are composite fibre, cranks, baseball bats, Microscope probes, tissue engineering, energy storage, super capacitor etc. Nanotubes are categorized as single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes with related structures.

 

Nanotechnologies provide essential improvement potentials for the development of both conventional energy sources (fossil and nuclear fuels) and renewable energy sources like geothermal energy, sun, wind, water, tides or biomass. Nano-coated, wear resistant drill probes, for example, allow the optimization of lifespan and efficiency of systems for the development of oil and natural gas deposits or geothermal energy and thus the saving of costs. The conversion of primary energy sources into electricity, heat and kinetic energy requires utmost efficiency. Efficiency increases, especially in fossil-fired gas and steam power plants, could help avoid considerable amounts of carbon dioxide emissions.

 

Nanotechnology is also being applied to or developed for application to a variety of industrial and purification processes. Purification and environmental cleanup applications include the desalination of water, water filtration, wastewater treatment, groundwater treatment, and other nanoremediation. In industry, applications may include construction materials, military goods, and nano-machining of nano-wires, nano-rods, few layers of graphene, etc. Also, recently a new field arisen from the root of Nanotechnology is called Nanobiotechnology. Nanobiotechnology is the biology-based, application-oriented frontier area of research in the hybrid discipline of Nanoscience and biotechnology with an equivalent contribution

 

The technology of shaping oldest materials is called metal casting. Casting means molten metal is pouring into a mold with an orbit of the shape to be created, and allowing it to solidify. When solidified, the required metal object is taken out from the mold either by fragmentation of the mold or by taking the mold apart. The solidified object is called the casting. The metal casting industry plays a key role in all the major sectors of economy. There are castings sectors like in locomotives, cars trucks, aircraft, office buildings, factories, schools, and homes.