Materials Science and Engineering is an accepted scientific discipline that has grown to include polymers, ceramics, glass, composite materials and biomaterials in recent decades. Technology and engineering of materials, includes the exploration and creation of new materials. Some of the most important technological challenges faced by humans today are due to the limitations of the available resources, and as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are expected to have a profound effect on the future of technology. Scientists of materials lay emphasis on understanding how a material's past affects its structure, and thus its properties and results.
Nanostructured materials are solid materials in the order of a few nanometres, with at least one characteristic structural dimension. In contrast to its optical, electronic , magnetic, or chemical characteristics, structural materials are used or studied mainly for their mechanical properties. These may involve a material reaction to an applied force, whether it's an elastic or rigid reaction, stiffness and strength. A nanostructure is an intermediate size between molecular and micro-structures. Structural materials encompass materials whose primary purpose is to transmit or support a force. Applications can be in transportation (aircraft and automobiles), construction (buildings and roads), or in components used for body protection (helmets and body armor), energy production (turbine blades), or other smaller structures such as those used in microelectronics. Structural materials can be metallic, ceramic, polymeric or a composite between these materials.
A ceramic is an inorganic non-metallic solid made up of either metal or non-metal materials, often crystalline oxide, nitride or carbide, formed and then heated to high temperatures. Ceramic materials are brittle, strong, compressive and stiff in shearing, stress and resistant to corrosion. Ceramics demonstrate very strong covalent (and/or ionic) bonding. Oxides, nitrides, and carbides are the main compositional groups in engineering ceramics. Engineering ceramics are used to produce components in various tappet heads, industrial industries, electronic devices and turbochargers etc. for applications.
Biomaterials are natural or synthetic, alive or lifeless and typically consist of multiple components which interact with biological systems. Biomaterials have served mankind since ancient times but subsequent evolution has made them more flexible and increased their use. Biomaterials have changed the fields such as bioengineering and tissue engineering to establish strategies to combat diseases that endanger life. Similar principles and techniques are used to treat different illnesses, such as heart failure, fractures, deep skin injuries, etc. Work is being carried out to develop the current procedures and to invent new approaches. Biomaterials and Medical Devices interact indirectly with biological systems. Biomaterials can be inserted in medical applications to replace or restore the missing tissue.
Corrosion is a natural process that converts a refined metal into a more chemically stable form such as oxide, hydroxide, or sulfide. It is the gradual destruction of materials (usually a metal) by chemical and/or electrochemical reaction with their environment. Alloys are metallic compounds made up of one metal and one or more metal or non-metal elements. Metallurgical engineers use methods such as flotation, solution mining, and hydrometallurgy to recover metals and minerals.
Hybrid materials are composites consisting of two constituents at the nanometer or molecular level. Commonly one of these compounds is inorganic and the other one organic in nature. Thus, they differ from traditional composites where the constituents are at the macroscopic (micrometer to millimeter) level. Bioinspired materials are synthetic materials whose structure, properties or function mimic those of natural materials or living matter.
This session lays a foundation for understanding how materials behave in nuclear systems. In particular, how to build on a solid base of nuclear material fundamentals in order to understand radiation damage and effects in fuels and structural materials. Uranium is the fuel most widely used to produce nuclear energy. That's because uranium atoms split apart relatively easily.
As the world-wide demand for energy is expected to continue to increase at a rapid rate, it is critical that improved technologies for sustainably producing, converting, and storing energy are developed. Materials are key roadblocks to improved performance in a number of important energy technologies including energy storage in batteries and supercapacitors, and energy conversion through solar cells, fuel cells, and thermoelectric devices. Energy materials include a broad class of materials that may have energy conversion or transmission applications. And, energy materials may also play a role in reducing current devices' power usage or output. Energy materials research is broad, extending from engineering devices. Semiconductors are used to produce a variety of electronic device types, including diodes , transistors, and integrated circuits. Semiconductors in their normal state, weak conductors as a current allows electrons to pass, stopping the entire influx of new electrons and making their valence bands filled up. Semiconductor materials such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) have electrical properties between those of a "conductor" and a "insulator" somewhere in the centre.
Computer simulations are used increasing in Materials Science and Engineering to both develop new materials and to better explain the properties of existing materials. Tools such as molecular dynamics simulations, density functional theory, and finite element modeling are used to understand atomic and crystal structure, phase and microstructure evolution, and their correlations with electronic, transport, and mechanical properties.
The materials humans use in everything from energy production and storage to construction to medical devices and countless other applications can be made better. Twenty-first century materials synthesis and processing techniques span length scales, from the nanometer for quantum devices to meters for smart or adaptive structures.
Functional materials are materials that have one or more properties that can be significantly changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli (temperature, electric/magnetic field, etc.) and are therefore applied in a broad range of technological devices as for example in memories, displays and telecommunication. Metal Casting is the process in which molten metal is poured into a mould that contains a hollow cavity of a desired geometrical shape and allowed to cool down to form a solidified part.
Smart materials are materials with one or more properties that can be dramatically altered by external factors such as electric or magnetic fields, heat, moisture, light, temperature , pH, or chemical compounds in a controlled technique. Smart materials are also called sensitive or reactive materials. The Smart materials applications include sensors and actuators, or artificial muscles, particularly as electroactive polymers.
Materials physics is the use of physics to explain the materials' physical properties. It is a combination of physical sciences such as chemistry, solid mechanics, physics of the solid state, and science of matter. The physics of materials is considered a subset of condensed matter physics and applies fundamental concepts of condensed matter to complex multiphase media, including technical materials of interest. Materials Chemistry is important in providing the conceptual basis for the design, development and understanding of new types of matter, letting it be organic, inorganic or hybrid. From nanomaterials and molecular devices to polymers and expanded solids, chemistry is rising a range of new materials such as molecular filters, catalysts, sensors, molecular transporters, artificial scaffolds and light-emitting or electron-conductive ensembles, with the potential for large scientific and societal effects.
Polymer science or macromolecular science is a subfield of polymer-related materials science, mainly synthetic polymers, such as plastics and elastomers. The polymer science field includes researchers from many disciplines including chemistry, physics , and engineering. Polymer manufacturing used in the areas of electronics and electrical products, textiles, aerospace, automotive, etc. Polymer Technology's recent advances have advanced the field of material science, through the use of polymer-based substances from electrical engineering , electronics, construction materials to packaging materials, fancy decoration products, automotive, etc.
Electronic materials are types of materials that are usually used as key elements in a variety of applications for electronics. For daily electronic gadgets such as smartphones, GPS systems, LED bulbs, cell phones, and computers, laptops, TVs, and monitors, these components can be Lights, images, screens and can be seen easily. Changing dimensions and level of functionality require ongoing efforts to develop state-of-the-art materials to meet the technical challenges associated with these devices' growth. Optical materials are substances used for controlling the flow of light. This can involve reflecting, absorbing, focusing or splitting an optical beam. The efficacy of a particular material at each function is highly dependent on wavelength, so it is important to better understand the relationship between light and matter. Magnetic materials are primarily materials which are used for their magnetic properties. A substance may be defined as a reaction to an applied magnetic field as diamagnet, paramagnet, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic.
Glass is the most transparent non-cristalline material and has broad practical, technical and decorative applications in window frames, tableware, optics and optoelectronics. Container glass and ordinary glazing are made from a particular form of glass called soda-lime glass, consisting of roughly calcium oxide, 75 percent silicon dioxide, sodium carbonate oxide and some minor additives. Glass can be colored by adding metallic salts, and vitreous enamels can also be painted and printed.
The fascinating thing about nanotechnology is that as the size scale of their dimensions exceeds nanometers the properties of several materials change. Materials scientists and engineers are working to understand those improvements in properties and use them at nanoscale stage in the production and manufacturing of materials. The field of materials science includes nanoscale materials discovery, characterization, properties, and use. Work on nanomaterials takes a science-based approach to nanotechnology, affecting developments in the metrology and synthesis of materials that have been developed to support work on microfabrication. Nanoscale-level materials with structure have special optical, electrical, or mechanical properties.
One of the most interesting things about nanotechnology is that the properties of materials may change when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers. Materials scientists work to understand and control those property changes and find new applications for nanostructures of well-known materials
Nanotechnology is being used in several applications to improve the environment and to produce more efficient and cost-effective energy, such as generating less pollution during the manufacture of materials, producing solar cells that generate electricity at a competitive cost, cleaning up organic chemicals polluting. Nanomaterials can be used in a variety of ways to reduce energy consumption. Nanoparticle fuel additives can also be of great use in reducing carbon emissions and increasing the efficiency of combustion fuels.
Carbon-based nanomaterials include fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide, nanodiamonds, and carbon-based quantum dots. A nanostructure is defined as any structure with one or more dimension, measuring in the nanometer scale range, that is, 10–9 m. Nanocomposites are materials that incorporate nanosized particles into a matrix of standard material. The result of the addition of nanoparticles is a drastic improvement in properties that can include mechanical strength, toughness and electrical or thermal conductivity
Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene exhibit extraordinary electrical properties for organic materials, and have a huge potential in electrical and electronic applications such as sensors, semiconductor devices, displays, conductors and energy conversion devices (e.g., fuel cells, harvesters and batteries). Graphene is a disruptive technology; one that could open up new markets and even replace existing technologies or materials. It is when graphene is used both to improve an existing material and in a transformational capacity that its true potential can be realised.
Manufacturing technology is a term that can refer to a number of modern methods of science, production, and engineering that assist in industrial production and various manufacturing processes. Instrumentation Technology ranges from designing, developing, installing, managing equipments that are used to monitor and control machinery.
Developing novel materials with advanced heat transport or heat resistance, understanding how these materials work at the atomic scale, and improving them. Novel devices are being designed and demonstrated including flexible solar cells and advanced battery designs that will lead the way to practical energy generation and storage for future generations. Research on advanced characterization techniques is providing new ways to study energy materials with unprecedented resolution and precision. These include world-leading measurement techniques for heat transport and methods for measuring electronic properties of semiconductors with nanometer resolution.
Nanotechnology — the science of the extremely small — holds enormous potential for healthcare, from delivering drugs more effectively, diagnosing diseases more rapidly and sensitively, and delivering vaccines via aerosols and patches. Nanotechnology is the science of materials at the molecular or subatomic level, One application of nanotechnology in medicine currently being developed involves employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs, heat, light or other substances to specific types of cells (such as cancer cells). ... This technique reduces damage to healthy cells in the body and allows for earlier detection of disease.