“Polymeric biomolecules” or the Biopolymers are polymers fictitious by living organisms. Polynucleotides, Nucleotides and Polypeptides are the 3 main categories of polymers those are known as long polymers.it even have short compound of amino acids and polysaccharides that are of times linear bonded chemical compound sugar structure for instance examples: rubber, suberin, animal pigment and polymer. The difference between biopolymer and synthetic polymer can be founded in Structure .compare to biopolymer synthetic polymer has much simplest structure. This reality shows to a molecular mass distribution that's missing in biopolymers. All biopolymers are alike that all of them contain the similar sequences and numbers of monomers and so all have an equivalent mass.
Polymer Chemistry is combining many specialized fields of expertise. It deals not only with the chemical synthesis, Polymer Structures and chemical properties of polymers which were esteemed by Hermann Staudinger as macromolecules but also covers other aspects of Novel artificial and chemical action ways, Reactions and chemistry of polymers, properties and characterization of polymers, Synthesis and application of polymer bio conjugation and also Polymer Nano composites and architectures. According to IUPAC recommendations, macromolecules are thought of relevant to the individual molecular chains and are the domain of chemistry. Industrial chemical compound chemistry has specific attention on the end-use application of product, with a smaller stress on applied analysis and preparation.
Polymer Engineering is generally an engineering field that designs, analyses, and/or modifies polymer materials. Polymer engineering covers aspects of the petrochemical industry, polymerization, structure and characterization of polymers, properties of polymers, compounding and processing of polymers and description of major polymers, structure property relations and applications.
Biomaterials are synthetic materials which can be used to replace damaged part or function in human body. Biomaterials can be derived as materials which are compatible with the human body and can be implanted into human body to replace a diseased part or abnormal function. Application of biomaterials dated back to 1900s where Bone plates were introduced to aid in the fixation of fractured bones. Implants made of Vanadium were used because of its good mechanical properties. Vanadium caused adverse effects in the body due to its rapid corrosion. Introduction of Stain less steels fixed the problem of corrosion. Besides Stainless steels Chromium and Cobalt alloys were also used as Implants because of their properties. Polymers are also can be used as biomaterials because of their excellent mechanical properties and good corrosion resistance. Polymers are also using now as biomaterials for different applications.
Bio plastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or micro biota. Bio plastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petro based polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of bio based polymers (bio plastics). Some, but not all, bio plastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bio plastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. Bio plastics can be composed of starches, cellulose, bio polymers, and a variety of other materials.
The fundamental kinds of biomaterials utilized as a part of tissue engineering can be extensively delegated manufactured polymers, which incorporates moderately hydrophobic materials There are likewise utilitarian or basic groupings, for example, regardless of whether they are hydrogels , injectable , surface altered , fit for tranquilize conveyance , by particular application, et cetera. The expansiveness of materials utilized as a part of tissue engineering emerges from the assortment of anatomical areas, cell composes, and exceptional applications that apply. For instance, moderately solid mechanical properties might be required in circumstances where the gadget might be subjected to weight-stacking or strain, or where support of a particular cite-design is required. In others, looser systems might be required or even best. The sort of materials utilized is likewise subject to the expected method of utilization the necessities of the cell kinds of enthusiasm for terms of porosity, and different issues. Notwithstanding this expansive range of potential materials, there are sure nonspecific properties that are attractive.
The extraordinarily large surface area on the nanoparticles presents diverse opportunities to place functional groups on the surface. Particles can be created that can expand/contract with changes in pH, or interact with anti-bodies in special ways to provide rapid ex-vivo medical diagnostic tests. Important extensions have been made in combining inorganic materials with polymers and in combining different classes of polymers together in nanoparticle form. Advanced analytical techniques allow us to measure structure at ever-decreasing length scales. Computer simulations of the events occurring during particle formation have also benefited us in developing control strategies to produce structured particles. Polymeric nanoparticles are predominantly prepared by wet synthetic routes. Several industrial processes will be described. Emphasis will be placed on the type of polymers and morphology structures that can be synthesized using each process. Controlled radical polymerization will be explored for their ability to provide structural control of polymer chains.
Polymer drug conjugates play a crucial role in the delivery of drugs. In the polymeric drug conjugates, the bioactive agent is combined covalently with chemical the substance to realize the efficient delivery of bioactive agents with in the required or specific period of time beside the improvement of porosity and retention time. Among them, may be a perishable compound having versatile nature because of it’s a pair of element atoms connected on every sides of phosphorus atom of its chemical compound backbone, it can be easily replaced by nucleophilic substitution reaction. Plastic packaging for food and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and additionally uses up valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like fuel.
Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways. Addition polymerization describes the method where monomers are added one by one to an active site on the growing chain. Polymers are huge macromolecules composed of repeating structural units. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. The study of polymer science begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized. Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways.
The use of natural polymers in medical applications spans to ancient times. These polymers offered a bioactive matrix for design of more biocompatible and intelligent materials. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are biopolymers commonly found in living organisms, and are known to reveal the physiological functions by forming a specific conformation. In recent years in identifying the biological functions of polysaccharides as related to potential biomedical applications natural polymers or they might be poly anionic consisting of only one type of monosaccharide.
Polymers will be the material of the new millennium and the production of polymeric parts i.e. green, sustainable, energy-efficient, high quality, low-priced, etc. will assure the accessibility of the finest solutions round the globe. Polymers are formed by combining together a large number of basic chemical units (monomer molecules) to form long chain molecules (polymers). Carbon is the main building block of polymer materials but one or more other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen are part of this building block. Polymer Science can be applied to save energy and improve renewable energy technologies.
Polymer Chemistry includes branches which mimic the divisions of the field of chemistry as a whole, with synthetic (preparation methods) and physical (property determination), biological (proteins, polysaccharides, and polynucleic acids), and analytical (qualitative and quantitative analysis) chemistry. Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man. Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial fibers, elastomers, and structural plastics. Polymers are also used for most composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, and precursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. This new book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly-changing and evolving field.
Some biopolymers, for example, PLA, normally happening zein, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate can be utilized as plastics, swapping the requirement for polystyrene or polyethylene based plastics. Polymer Nano composites (PNC) are made of a polymers or copolymers having nanoparticles or Nano fillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. The plastic used for food packaging and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also of valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current research on exploring the alternatives to petrol and priority on reduced environmental impact, research is increased in development of biodegradable packaging from biopolymer-based materials.
Polymer Physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. While it focuses on the perspective of condensed matter physics, polymer physics is originally a branch of statistical physics. Polymer physics and polymer chemistry are also related with the field of polymer science, where this is considered the applicative part of polymers. Polymer Characterization includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, Thermal Properties, mechanical properties, and any additives. Molecular Characterization also includes the development and refinement of analytical methods with statistical models which help to understand phase separation and phase transistion of polymers. The results achieved hereof can be eventually applied to optimize the experimental conditions during analyses. We have multiple approaches for Polymer Characterization.
The fascinating thing about nanotechnology is that as the size scale of their dimensions exceeds nanometers the properties of several materials change. Materials scientists and engineers are working to understand those improvements in properties and use them at nanoscale stage in the production and manufacturing of materials. The field of materials science includes nanoscale materials discovery, characterization, properties, and use. Work on nanomaterials takes a science-based approach to nanotechnology, affecting developments in the metrology and synthesis of materials that have been developed to support work on microfabrication. Nanoscale-level materials with structure have special optical, electrical, or mechanical properties.
Electronic materials are types of materials that are usually used as key elements in a variety of applications for electronics. For daily electronic gadgets such as smartphones, GPS systems, LED bulbs, cell phones, and computers, laptops, TVs, and monitors, these components can be Lights, images, screens and can be seen easily. Changing dimensions and level of functionality require ongoing efforts to develop state-of-the-art materials to meet the technical challenges associated with these devices' growth. Optical materials are substances used for controlling the flow of light. This can involve reflecting, absorbing, focusing or splitting an optical beam. The efficacy of a particular material at each function is highly dependent on wavelength, so it is important to better understand the relationship between light and matter. Magnetic materials are primarily materials which are used for their magnetic properties. A substance may be defined as a reaction to an applied magnetic field as diamagnet, paramagnet, ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic.
Future scope of Biopolymers and plastics which demand on the manufacturing for new materials which is overwhelming. The resources will be cultivated bases of cascade use biomass will be first used for materials, energy generation, reduction of the carbon footprint and saving fossil resources. The main concerns for humans in now days utilize energy and resources, food, health, mobility & infrastructure and communications. Polymers reside an exceptional role during this modern active. It can also have the major impact on places that are far away from the electrical grids by dramatically changing the lifestyles of a large part of the global population who still lack access to electricity. On advanced search materials solutions and keeping an eye on the goal of property production and consumption, bioplastics have many potential benefits.