Polymer Engineering is generally an engineering field that designs, analyses, and/or modifies polymer materials. Polymer engineering covers aspects of the petrochemical industry, polymerization, structure and characterization of polymers, properties of polymers, compounding and processing of polymers and description of major polymers, structure property relations and applications.
Advanced polymeric Bio materials continue to serve as a cornerstone of new medical technologies and therapies. The vast majority of these materials, both natural and synthetic, interact with biological matter without direct electronic communication. However, biological systems have evolved to synthesize and employ naturally-derived materials for the generation and modulation of electrical potentials, voltage gradients, and ion flows. Bio electric phenomena can be interpreted as potent signaling cues for intra- and inter-cellular communication. These cues can serve as a gateway to link synthetic devices with biological systems. This progress report will provide an update on advances in the application of electronically active Bio materials for use in organic electronics and bio-interfaces. Specific focus will be granted to the use of natural and synthetic biological materials as integral components in technologies such as thin film electronics, in vitro cell culture models, and implantable medical devices. Future perspectives and emerging challenges will also be highlighted.
Bio plastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or micro biota. Bio plastic can be made from agricultural by-products and also from used plastic bottles and other containers using microorganisms. Common plastics, such as fossil-fuel plastics (also called petro based polymers), are derived from petroleum or natural gas. Production of such plastics tends to require more fossil fuels and to produce more greenhouse gases than the production of bio based polymers (bio plastics). Some, but not all, bio plastics are designed to biodegrade. Biodegradable bio plastics can break down in either anaerobic or aerobic environments, depending on how they are manufactured. Bio plastics can be composed of starches, cellulose, bio polymers, and a variety of other materials.
Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways. Addition polymerization describes the method where monomers are added one by one to an active site on the growing chain. Polymers are huge macromolecules composed of repeating structural units. While polymer in popular usage suggests plastic, the term actually refers to a large class of natural and synthetic materials. The study of polymer science begins with understanding the methods in which these materials are synthesized. Polymer synthesis is a complex procedure and can take place in a variety of ways.
In Polymer Chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.There are many forms of polymerization and different systems exist to categorize them. In chemical compounds, polymerization occurs via a variety of reaction mechanisms that vary in complexity due to functional groups present in reacting compounds and their inherent steric effects. In more straightforward polymerization, alkenes, which are relatively stable due to sigma bonding between carbon atoms, form polymers through relatively simple radical reactions; in contrast, more complex reactions such as those that involve substitution at the carbonyl group require more complex synthesis due to the way in which reacting molecules polymerize. Alkanes can also be polymerized, but only with the help of strong acids.
When a polymer has stereochemical isomerism within the chain, its properties often depend on the stereochemical structure. Thus the analysis of the Stereo-Chemistry of polymers is important and NMR spectroscopy has been the most valuable tool for this purpose. It is a general rule that for a polymer to crystallize, it must have highly regular polymer chains. Highly irregular polymers are almost inevitably amorphous. Polymer chains can have isomeric forms that decrease the regularity of the chains.
Polymer Physics is the field of physics that studies polymers, their fluctuations, mechanical properties, as well as the kinetics of reactions involving degradation and polymerization of polymers and monomers respectively. While it focuses on the perspective of condensed matter physics, polymer physics is originally a branch of statistical physics. Polymer physics and polymer chemistry are also related with the field of polymer science, where this is considered the applicative part of polymers. Polymer Characterization includes determining molecular weight distribution, the molecular structure, the morphology of the polymer, Thermal Properties, mechanical properties, and any additives. Molecular Characterization also includes the development and refinement of analytical methods with statistical models which help to understand phase separation and phase transistion of polymers. The results achieved hereof can be eventually applied to optimize the experimental conditions during analyses. We have multiple approaches for Polymer Characterization.
The marketing mix is an important part of the marketing of polymers and consists of the marketing 'tools' you are going to use. But marketing strategy is more than the marketing of mixed polymers and plastics. The marketing strategy sets your marketing goals, defines your target markets and describes how you will go about positioning the business to achieve advantage over your competitors. The marketing mix, which follows from your marketing strategy, is how you achieve that 'unique selling proposition' and deliver benefits to your customers. When you have developed your marketing strategy, it is usually written down in a marketing plan. The plan usually goes further than the strategy, including detail such as budgets. You need to have a marketing strategy before you can write a marketing plan. Your marketing strategy may serve you well for a number of years but the details, such as budgets for marketing activities, of the marketing plan may need to be updated every year.
The fundamental kinds of biomaterials utilized as a part of tissue engineering can be extensively delegated manufactured polymers, which incorporates moderately hydrophobic materials There are likewise utilitarian or basic groupings, for example, regardless of whether they are hydrogels , injectable , surface altered , fit for tranquilize conveyance , by particular application, et cetera. The expansiveness of materials utilized as a part of tissue engineering emerges from the assortment of anatomical areas, cell composes, and exceptional applications that apply. For instance, moderately solid mechanical properties might be required in circumstances where the gadget might be subjected to weight-stacking or strain, or where support of a particular cite-design is required. In others, looser systems might be required or even best. The sort of materials utilized is likewise subject to the expected method of utilization the necessities of the cell kinds of enthusiasm for terms of porosity, and different issues. Notwithstanding this expansive range of potential materials, there are sure nonspecific properties that are attractive.
The extraordinarily large surface area on the nanoparticles presents diverse opportunities to place functional groups on the surface. Particles can be created that can expand/contract with changes in pH, or interact with anti-bodies in special ways to provide rapid ex-vivo medical diagnostic tests. Important extensions have been made in combining inorganic materials with polymers and in combining different classes of polymers together in nanoparticle form. Advanced analytical techniques allow us to measure structure at ever-decreasing length scales. Computer simulations of the events occurring during particle formation have also benefited us in developing control strategies to produce structured particles. Polymeric nanoparticles are predominantly prepared by wet synthetic routes. Several industrial processes will be described. Emphasis will be placed on the type of polymers and morphology structures that can be synthesized using each process. Controlled radical polymerization will be explored for their ability to provide structural control of polymer chains.
Addition polymerization is a process by which unsaturated monomers are converted to polymers of high molecular weight, exhibiting the characteristics of a typical chain reaction. A large number of different classes of unsaturated monomers. Polypropylene: The reaction to make polypropylene (H2C=CHCH3) is illustrated in the middle reaction of the graphic. Notice that the polymer bonds are always through the carbons of the double bond.
Polymer characterization is the analytical branch of polymer science. Characterization describes those features of the composition and structure (including defects) of a material that are significant for a particular preparation, study of properties, or use, and suffice for reproduction of the material. Characterization techniques are typically used to determine molecular mass, molecular structure, morphology, thermal properties, and mechanical properties.
Recent advances in nanotechnology have made the Nano science a field hot area research, making it one of the most research areas of science in the past two decades. Nano composites are a new class of materials in which the dimension of the dispersed particles occurred at the nanometer scale. Presents, in a multidisciplinary way, state-of-the-art topics related to polymer science and engineering. Covers composites, nanotechnology, testing and characterization, specialty materials, novelty materials, bio-based materials and applications.
Cellulose-fiber-reinforced polymer composites have received much attention because of their low density, nonabrasive, combustible, nontoxic, low cost, and biodegradable properties. A lot of research works have been performed all over the world on the use of cellulose fibers as a reinforcing material for the preparation of various types of composites. Cellulose is the most generous substance on the earth, synthesized by plants, algae and also some species of bacteria and microorganisms. The Plant derivative cellulose and Black Carbon (BC) have the same chemical composition but differ in structure and physical properties.
Global warming, the growing awareness of environmental and waste management issues, dwindling fossil resources, and rising oil prices: these are some of the reasons why “bio”products are increasingly being promoted for sustainable development. Biopolymers can be classified in two ways: according to their renewability content (fully or partially bio-based or oil-based) and to their biodegradability level (fully or partially or not biodegradable). Moreover, recent technological breakthroughs have substantially improved the properties of some bio-based polymers, such as heat resistant polylactic acid, enabling a wider range of applications. In addition, plants are being optimized, especially to provide bio-fibres with more stable resource properties over time.
The use of natural polymers in medical applications spans to ancient times. These polymers offered a bioactive matrix for design of more biocompatible and intelligent materials. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are biopolymers commonly found in living organisms, and are known to reveal the physiological functions by forming a specific conformation. In recent years in identifying the biological functions of polysaccharides as related to potential biomedical applications natural polymers or they might be poly anionic consisting of only one type of monosaccharide.
Polymers will be the material of the new millennium and the production of polymeric parts i.e. green, sustainable, energy-efficient, high quality, low-priced, etc. will assure the accessibility of the finest solutions round the globe. Polymers are formed by combining together a large number of basic chemical units (monomer molecules) to form long chain molecules (polymers). Carbon is the main building block of polymer materials but one or more other elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen are part of this building block. Polymer Science can be applied to save energy and improve renewable energy technologies.
Macromolecular and polyelectrolyte solutions are of abiding interest not only because of the fascinating range of phenomena they display, but because of their tremendous utility. This process allows for the control of molecular parameters such as molecular-weight/molecular-weight distribution, microstructure/structure, topology, and the nature and number of functional groups. In addition, macromolecular engineering is the key to establishing the relationships between the precise molecular architectures and their properties. The understanding of the structure-property interplay is critical for the successful use of these elegantly tailored structures in the design of novel polymeric materials for applications such as tissue engineering, drug delivery, molecular filtration, micro- and optoelectronics, and polymer conductivity.
For courses in Plastics, Materials and Manufacturing found in departments of mechanical, industrial or manufacturing technology or engineering; also for any beginning course in Plastics in engineering or technology programs. New classes of polymeric materials with unique applications are being introduced. In many cases, the properties and their usage were discovered only recently. This chapter covers two areas: health, medicine, and biotechnology, a rapidly developing domain based largely on known materials but moving to designed and engineered polymers, and information and communications, an emerging field for polymers significantly based on their electronic properties. These two areas are attracting a great deal of attention, particularly among researchers who are not traditional specialists in polymer science.
Some biopolymers, for example, PLA, normally happening zein, and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate can be utilized as plastics, swapping the requirement for polystyrene or polyethylene based plastics. Polymer Nano composites (PNC) are made of a polymers or copolymers having nanoparticles or Nano fillers dispersed in the polymer matrix. The plastic used for food packaging and non-food applications is non-biodegradable, and also of valuable and scarce non-renewable resources like petroleum. With the current research on exploring the alternatives to petrol and priority on reduced environmental impact, research is increased in development of biodegradable packaging from biopolymer-based materials.
Smart materials and structures are inspired in nature and try to mimic adaptive characteristics of natural systems. This means that one of their properties can be changed by an external condition, such as temperature, light, pressure or electricity. This change is reversible and can be repeated many times. There are a wide range of different smart materials. Each offer different properties that can be changed. Smart functional polymers have gained a huge amount of interest in recent times due to their innumerable applications in areas including sensors, actuators, and switchable wet ability, bio-medical and environmental applications. Numerous intensive research studies have been carried out to develop smart functional polymers using stimuli responsive polymeric moieties.
Polymer Chemistry includes branches which mimic the divisions of the field of chemistry as a whole, with synthetic (preparation methods) and physical (property determination), biological (proteins, polysaccharides, and polynucleic acids), and analytical (qualitative and quantitative analysis) chemistry. Polymers already have a range of applications that far exceeds that of any other class of material available to man. Current applications extend from adhesives, coatings, foams, and packaging materials to textile and industrial fibers, elastomers, and structural plastics. Polymers are also used for most composites, electronic devices, biomedical devices, optical devices, and precursors for many newly developed high-tech ceramics. This new book presents leading-edge research in this rapidly-changing and evolving field.