Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. While nanomaterials have been a part of our everyday life for quite some time, the past two decades have witnessed a fast growth of the nanotechnology sector. Nanotechnology is being used in several applications to improve the environment and to produce more efficient and cost-effective energy, as generating less pollution during the manufacture of materials, producing solar cells that generate electricity at a competitive cost, cleaning up organic chemicals polluting groundwater, clearing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from air, and so forth.
Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. The term covers a diverse set of devices and materials, with the common characteristic that they are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one-dimensional nanotubes/nanowires (e.g. Silicon nanowires or Carbon nanotubes) or advanced molecular electronics. Recent silicon CMOS technology generations, such as the 22 nanometer node, are already within this regime.
At the atomic level magnetism can be described through the overlap of electron wave functions, when taking their spin interactions into account. On the nano meter length scale it becomes more difficult to predict the behavior of a magnetic system. When reducing the size of the magnetic material the number of domains within the material will be reduced until only a single domain is obtained. By having only single domains it is possible to produce strong permanent magnets. However if the size is reduced beyond a certain limit the sample becomes superparamagnetic and does no longer hold any ferromagnetism. To produce high performance permanent magnetic the particle size should be chosen so that the coercivity is maximized together with the remanence.
Nanoscience is playing an increasingly greater role in dermatology. As a matter of fact, nanodermatology is considered to be the fastest developing field in dermatological and cosmeceutical research. From dyes containing lead sulfide used by ancient Egyptians to blacken hair to the application of zinc oxide in sunscreens and the recent development of bicelles that are smaller and more versatile than conventional liposomes, nanoparticles can make both products and processes better and more effective.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state physics, and chemistry. It is the first example of a new academic discipline emerging by fusion rather than fission.
Nanotechnology is impacting the podium of goods, many product that integrate nanomaterials area unit already in a very sort of items; several of which individuals don't even notice contain nanoparticles, products with recent functions starting from easy-to-clean to scratch-resistant. Samples of that car bumpers are made lighter, clothing is more stain repellant, sun cream is more energy resistant, synthetic bones are stronger, cell phone screens are lighter weight. Nanotechnology applications area unit presently being researched tested and in some cases already applied across the entire spectrum of food technology, from agriculture to food processing, packaging and food supplements. In our special Food engineering section we've ready an outline of this space.
Molecular nanotechnology describes engineered nanosystems. Operating on the molecular scale. It is particularly associated with the molecular assembler, a machine that can manufacture a desired structure or mechanism atom-by-atom using the principle of mechanosynthesis- mechanically guided chemical synthesis- is primary to molecular manufacturing. It is a division of engineering that deals with the design and manufacture of particularly small devices, that is, nanosystems or devices, built at the molecular level of matter. The proposed application of Molecular Nanotechnology is the ability to design and engineering material at nanoscale level, encompassing a large variety of possible viable applications.
Nanofluidics is the study of the behavior, manipulation, and control of fluids that are confined to structures of nanometer characteristic dimensions. Fluids confined in these structures exhibit physical behaviors not observed in larger structures, such as those of micrometer dimensions and above, because the characteristic physical scaling lengths of the fluid, very closely coincide with the dimensions of the nanostructure itself. When structures approach the size regime corresponding to molecular scaling lengths, new physical constraints are placed on the behavior of the fluid.
Nano materials are characterized as materials with no less than one outside measurement in the size extent from around 1-100 nanometers. Nanoparticles are items with each of the three outside measurements at the Nano scale. Nanoparticles that are normally happening or are the accidental side effects of ignition procedures are generally physically and synthetically heterogeneous and frequently termed ultrafine particles. Built nanoparticles are deliberately delivered and planned with particular properties identified with shape, size, surface properties and science. These properties are reflected in mist concentrates, colloids, or powders. Regularly, the conduct of nanomaterials might depend more on surface region than molecule arrangement itself. Nanotubes, Nano clays and quantum dabs will be the quickest developing sorts.
Nanoparticles with ~100 nanometers have been broadly used to progress the drug accumulation, therapeutic efficacy and internalization. The biological and physicochemical applications of the Nanoparticles can also be finely adjusted by tailoring their chemical properties, sizes, structures, morphologies, shapes, and surface properties.
Advanced materials can be defined in many ways. The broadest definition is to refer to all materials that represent advances over the traditional materials that have been used for hundreds or even thousands of years. From this perspective, advanced materials refer to all new materials and modifications to existing materials to obtain superior performance in one or more characteristics that are critical for the application under consideration. They can also exhibit completely novel properties. Advanced materials typically have properties that are superior to and outperform conventional materials in their applications. The development of advanced materials is associated with the generation of new knowledge and intellectual property (IP). The development of advanced materials can even lead to the design of completely new products. Advanced materials may also be remarkably adaptable. The advanced materials industry encompasses a full life cycle from materials extraction, primary production, process development and materials characterisation to product fabrication, testing, use and end-of-life waste management and recycling. Supporting activities would include research, design and development, together with skills and standards development.
The word nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology in electronic components. These components are commonly a few nanometers in size. The tinier electronic components turn into, the harder they are to manufacture. Nanoelectronics covers a varied set of materials and devices, with the general characteristic that they are so small that physical effects alter the material properties on a nanoscale – inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties play a important role in the workings of these devices. Nanodevices are critical enablers which will allow mankind to exploit the ultimate technical capabilities of magnetic, electronic, biological and mechanical systems. Nanosensor can be define as a device that is able of conveying data and information about the behavior and uniqueness of nanoparticles at the nanoscale level to the macroscopic level. We have various types of nanosensors like chemical, mechanical, biological sensors.
Polymer nanocomposites consist of a polymer or copolymer having Nano particles isolated in the polymer matrix. Polymer nanotechnology group will develop enabling techniques for the patterning of functional surfaces. Nanotechnology has made significant contributions to the formulation of adhesives, sealants, coatings, potting and encapsulation compounds. Nanoparticle fillers such as bentonites, nano-sized silica particles and zeolites have lead to the growth of products with enhanced: tensile strength, thermal stability, chemical resistance, thermal conductivity, transparency.
Computational Materials Science concentrates on the calculation of materials properties starting from microscopic theories. It has become a powerful tool in industrial research for designing new materials, modifying materials properties and optimizing chemical processes. Nanotechnology, spintronics and photonics, which will provide the foundation for important technological advances in the future. Methods such as electronic structure calculations, molecular dynamics simulations and beyond are presented, the discussion extending from the basics to the latest applications.
Nanoparticles used as drug delivery vehicles are generally < 100 nm in at least one dimension, and consist of different biodegradable materials such as natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, or metals. Nanoparticles are taken up by cells more efficiently than larger micromolecules and therefore, could be used as effective transport and delivery systems. For therapeutic applications, drugs can either be integrated in the matrix of the particle or attached to the particle surface. A drug targeting system should be able to control the fate of a drug entering the biological environment. Nanosystems with different compositions and biological properties have been extensively investigated for drug and gene delivery applications.
There is a possible toxic effect of ultrafine particles of Nanoscale dimensions, both at the organ level as well as cellular lever, DNA repair and cellular regeneration. generally the focused area is ultrafine particles related to Carbon, or silica or metals such as titania, copper and silver. This is mostly due to their catalytic properties in their chemical capability to facilitate chemical transformation of epitopes. In wound healing Silver nanoparticles have been utilized as antimicrobial agents and are known to cause side effects. Recent advances in engineered surfaces like metal–organic or zeolites frame works are potentially cytotoxic, due to their ultrahigh surface area and potential for reactive oxygen species generation or modification of membranes, lipids, and amino acids.
Nanorobotics is the technology of creating robots or machines at nearly to the scale of a nanometer (10-9). nanorobotics refers to the still mainly theoretical nanotechnology engineering discipline of designing and construction of nanorobots. Nanorobots (nanobots or nanoids) are characteristically devices ranging in size from 0.1-10 micrometres and constructed of molecular or nanoscale components. no artificial non-biological nanorobots have so far been formed, they remain a hypothetical theory at this time. Another definition often used is a robot which allows precision interactions with nanoscale objects, or can manipulate with nanoscale resolution. Following this definition even a large apparatus such as an atomic force microscope can be considered a nanorobotic instrument when configured to perform nanomanipulation. Microrobots or macroscale robots which can move with nanoscale precision can also be considered nanorobots.
The mathematical analysis of any fresh field is a compelling goal. We will consider 3 themes which indicate some of the directions that increasing role might take: in bridging time and length scales, in fast algorithms and in optimization and predictability. Its solutions contain significant technical challenges.In a complementary way, mathematics and simulation would be enormously stimulated by the challenges of nanoscale modelling. While some rapidly developing areas of mathematics such as fast multipole and multigrid algorithms are ready to apply in nanoscale modelling.
Biomaterials are the non-drug molecules which are considered to interact with the biological system either as a part of medical device or repair or to replace any damaged organs or tissues. Biomaterials can be derived either synthetically or naturally. Tissue engineering has the possible to achieve this by combining materials design and engineering with cell therapy. Biomaterials can give physical supports for engineered tissues, powerful topographical and chemical cues to guide cells. Biomaterials engineering involves processing, synthesis and characterisation of novel materials, including glasses, polymers, cements, proteins, textile composites and hybrids. Introducing nanoscale cues such as Nano topography or nanoparticles as therapeutic agents provide an exciting approach to modulate cell behaviour. In order to probe the cell-material interface.
Nanotechnology will be utilized for Monitoring, Detection, Therapeutics, and Diagnostics. Themes like Nanotechnology Inventions, Nanotechnology based Imaging Technologies and Lab-on-a-Chip Point of Care Diagnostics, Implantable Nano sensors, Advanced Nano-Bio-Sensor Technologies, Invasive Therapy Technologies, Nano Arrays for Advanced Diagnostics and Therapy and Cellular based Therapy might be talked about. The advancements or development in Nanotechnology helps in the treatment of neuro degenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease.
Nanotechnology is the handling of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. The interesting aspect about nanotechnology is that the properties of many materials alter when the size scale of their dimensions approaches nanometers. Materials scientists and engineers work to understand those property changes and utilize them in the processing and manufacture of materials at the nanoscale level. The field of materials science covers the discovery, characterization, properties, and use of nanoscale materials. Nanomaterials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, influencing advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of microfabrication research. Materialswith structure at the nanoscale level o have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties. Although much of nanotechnology's potential still remains un-utilized, investment in the field is booming. The U.S. government distributed more than a billion dollars to nanotechnology research in 2005 to find new developments in nanotechnology. China, Japan and the European Union have spent similar amounts. The hopes are the same on all fronts: to push oneself off a surface on a growing global market that the National Science Foundation estimates will be worth a trillion dollars. The global market for activated carbon totaled $1.9 billion, in 2013, driven primarily by Asia-Pacific and North American region for applications in water treatment and air purification.
Computational nanotechnology is concerned with the expansion and use of computer-based models for understanding, predicting and analyzing the properties or behavior of systems relevant to nanoscience and nanotechnology. The function of computational nanomechanics has become significantly important in the in development and growth of nanotechnology, because time scales of significant nanoscale systems and phenomenon have shrunk to the level, with high-fidelity computer theoretical modeling and simulation. Computational nanotechnology is rising as a basic engineering analysis tool for the new designs of nanodevices.
Nanomedicine is a division of medicine that applies the tools and knowledge of nanotechnology in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Nanomedicine includes the use of nanoscale materials, such as Nano robots and biocompatible nanoparticles, for delivery, diagnosis, actuation purposes or sensing in a living organism. Nanomedicine is medical application of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology. Nanotechnology has provided the chance of delivering drugs to particular cells using nanoparticles. Current issues for nanomedicine involve understanding the problems related to toxicity and environmental impact of nanoscale materials.
Biomedical Engineering is one of the very significant fields in engineering as it deals with interfacing the human body with electronic devices. Thus the performances of these biomedical devices need to meet the requirements. However the traditional devices lack in certain aspects due to the accessibility of compound structures. With the new advances in Nanotechnology, a large range of biomedical devices are in advance a boom in progress by overcoming the drawbacks of the conventional devices. The functions of Nanotechnology in Biomedical engineering has given rise to a drug delivery system that directly targets the affected cell, a nano capsule with camera that can be swallowed by patient for diagnosing ailments and many more such applications that make the diagnosing and treatment much simpler and the complex structures accessible. This paper reviews the advancement of biomedical applications due to the integration of Nanotechnology field.
Graphene-based Nanotechnologies for Environment and Energy explores how graphene materials are being used to make very reliable, efficient devices and products for harvesting, energy storage, purification environmental monitoring. Graphene-based nanotechnologies are at the heart of some of the most exciting developments in the fields of energy and environmental research. Graphene has exceptional properties, which are being used to create more effective products for electronic systems, environmental sensing devices, energy storage, electrode materials, fuel cell, novel nano-sorbents, membrane and photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants especially in the field of water and wastewater treatment.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cylindrical molecules that consist of rolled-up sheets of single-layer carbon atoms (graphene). They can be single-walled (SWCNT) with a diameter of less than 1 nanometer (nm) or multi-walled (MWCNT), consisting of several concentrically interlinked nanotubes, with diameters reaching more than 100 nm. Their length can reach several micrometers or even millimeters.
Nanophotonics or Nano/Micro optics is the study of the behavior of light on the nanometre scale. It is define as a division of optical engineering which deals with the interaction of light with particles or substances.
Optoelectronics and Microelectronics
Amplifiers and Isolator
Nanofabrication is the plan and manufacture of devices with dimensions measured in nanometers. One nanometer is 10-9 meter, or a millionth of a millimeter. Nanofabrication is of interest to computer engineers because it opens the door to super-high-density microprocessors and memory chips. It has been suggested that each data bit could be stored in a single atom. a single atom might even be able to represent a byte or word of data. Nanofabrication has also caught the attention of the medical industry, the military, and the aerospace industry.