Cardiology is the study and treatment of disorders of the heart and the blood vessels. A person with heart disease or cardiovascular disease may be referred to a cardiologist. Cardiology is a branch of internal medicine. A cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the cardiovascular system. The field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who specialize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists, a specialty of internal medicine. Pediatric cardiologists are pediatricians who specialize in cardiology. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called cardiothoracic surgeons or cardiac surgeons, a specialty of general surgery. Although the cardiovascular system is inextricably linked to blood, cardiology is relatively unconcerned with hematology and its diseases.
Heart attacks and strokes are usually acute events and are mainly caused by a blockage that prevents blood from flowing to the heart or brain. The most common reason for this is a build-up of fatty deposits on the inner walls of the blood vessels that supply the heart or brain. Strokes can also be caused by bleeding from a blood vessel in the brain or from blood clots. The cause of heart attacks and strokes are usually the presence of a combination of risk factors, such as tobacco use, unhealthy diet and obesity, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol, hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidaemia.
Cardiology is a branch of medicine which deals with disorders of the heart and the other parts of the circulatory system. This field includes medical diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease, heart failure, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. It is likely that there will be continuing sub specialization in the tracking of technical expertise and clinical excellence in the field of cardiology.
Cardiovascular research is basically dealing with diseases or disorders that are related to the heart like Coronary Artery Disease, Disorders of Heart, Interventional Cardiology, Heart Failure, Heart Diseases Cardiovascular Medicine, Neuro-Cardiology, Valvular Heart Disease, Cardiac Electrophysiology, Hypercholesterolemia, Echocardiography, Cardiac Anesthesiology, Pediatric Cardiology, Coronary Artery Disease, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Congenital Heart Defects.
An arrhythmia describes an irregular heartbeat. With this condition, a person’s heart may beat too quickly, too slowly, too early, or with an irregular rhythm. Arrhythmias occur when the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats are not working correctly. An irregular heartbeat may feel like a racing heart or fluttering. Many heart arrhythmias are harmless. However, if they are highly irregular or result from a weak or damaged heart, arrhythmias can cause severe and potentially fatal symptoms and complications.
Cardio-oncology is very essential for the effective treatment of cancer patients. Virtually all antineoplastic agents are related with cardiotoxicity. All patients who are being considered for chemotherapy, particularly the individuals who have earlier history of heart sickness ought to experience point by point cardiovascular assessment to advance the treatment. Sequential examination of left ventricular systolic function and cardiac biomarkers might also be considered in the selected populations of patient. Cardio-toxic effects of chemotherapy can be decreased by the frequent use of angiotensin-converting inhibitors of enzyme, angiotensin receptor blockers, or beta-blockers. Antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy may be taken in patients with a potential hyper-coagulable state related with chemotherapy or malignant growth.
Pediatric cardiology is outgrowing from the shadows of adult cardiology and cardiac surgery. It promises to be an attractive and sought-after subspeciality of Pediatrics, dealing with not only congenital cardiac diseases but also metabolic, rheumatic and host of other cardiac diseases. The new government policy shall provide more training avenues for the budding pediatric cardiologists, pediatric cardiac surgeons, pediatric anesthetists, pediatric cardiac intensivists, neonatologists and a host of supportive workforce. Neonatal heart conditions mainly includes heart defects associated with other types of disease, such as diaphragmatic hernia, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) or infection (myocarditis), Heart problems due to lung masses, etc. Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common, congenital disorder in newborns. A neonatal cardiologist is a pediatrician who has received extensive training in diagnosing and treating babies cardiac problems.
Cardiovascular surgeons perform many different types of operations, including heart valve repair and replacement, heart defect repair, coronary artery bypass, aneurysm repair, trans myocardial laser revascularization, and heart transplantation, heart failure surgery, surgery to treat congenital heart defects in children and congenital heart disease in adults, trans catheter aortic valve replacement and implantation of ventricular assist devices, and total artificial hearts.. They also perform operations on the blood vessels in your body, including the aorta—the body’s main blood supplier. Heart surgery today may also include the use or implantation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), mechanical devices that “assist” the failing heart by helping it pump blood throughout the body.
Interventional Cardiology deals with the treatment of structural heart diseases by using a small flexible tube called catheter. The harmed or debilated vessels, narrowed arteries or other parts of the heart structure are corrected by catheter. The heart can be subjected to many procedures through catheterization. Cardiac catheterization includes inserting catheter through small holes in the skin, then threading them through blood vessels to remove any blockages in a vessel. The advantage of the interventional cardiology is that it avoids the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery.
Heart is a most important muscle organ in humans and animals to pump blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Medications that are used to treat other disorders in the body might show a great effect on the heart and cause various side effects. Therefore, case reports of cardiac arrest and its disease are very important in the development of treatment strategies.
Cardiovascular Toxicology deals with the adverse effects on the heart or blood systems which result from exposure to toxic chemicals. It describes safety data of detrimental effects of new cardiovascular drugs. Cardiovascular pharmacology manages the drug of heart illnesses. The Cardiac Drugs are utilized to treat states of the heart or the circulatory or vascular framework. Many classes of cardiovascular operators are accessible to treat the different cardiovascular conditions. Pharmacology of vascular endothelium deals with alterations of endothelial cells and the vasculature play a central role in the pathogenesis of a broad spectrum of the most dreadful of human diseases, as endothelial cells have the key function of participating in the maintenance of patent and functional capillaries.
Cardiac nursing is a nursing specialty that works with patients who suffer from various conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat conditions such as unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the direction of a cardiologist.
Cardiac nurses perform postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac monitoring, vascular monitoring, and health assessments. Cardiac nurses must have Basic Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support certification. In addition, cardiac nurses must possess specialized skills including electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation, and medication administration by continuous intravenous drip. Cardiac nurses work in many different environments, including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, intensive care units (ICU), operating theatres, cardiac rehabilitation centers, clinical research, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.
The field of cardiovascular imaging is evolving at an accelerated pace. Significant advances in nuclear imaging, MRI, computed tomography (CT) and echocardiography have added to our armamentarium of improved testing to diagnose and treat heart disease. The future of cardiovascular diagnostics is trending towards noninvasive multimodalities. Advanced imaging protocols will provide safer (less radiation, less procedural complications) and cost-effective algorithms to diagnose obstructive, flow-limiting coronary artery lesions as an adjunct to invasive coronary angiography.
Advances in coronary CT angiography (CCTA) have led to high temporal resolution and excellent accuracy of detecting coronary artery stenosis. This technology will continue to improve and provide an alternative to invasive techniques to rapidly identify significant coronary lesions.