Creating new materials such as high-strength lightweight alloys is difficult because minor changes in composition and manufacturing can lead to big differences in performance. Researchers must conduct expensive and time-consuming trial-and-error experiments to find the right combination of components and manufacturing processes. There is a faster way. Using material properties data and advanced computer models, engineers can realistically simulate the behavior of new materials in specific applications and avoid lengthy cycles of build and test.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: aeronautical engineering and astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering is similar, but deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. A degree in aerospace engineering and a degree in aeronautical engineering both prepare students to design aircraft. Aeronautical engineering is a branch of aerospace engineering.
Applied physics is the application of the science of physics to helping human beings and solving their problems. It differs from engineering because engineers solve well-defined problems. Applied physicists use physics or conduct physics research to develop new technologies or solve engineering problems. Applied physics is intended for a particular technological or practical use. It is usually considered as a bridge or connection between physics and engineering.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with artificial intelligence are designed for include: Speech recognition. Learning. In computer science, artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents".
Astronomy is the study of everything in the universe beyond Earth's atmosphere. That includes objects we can see with our naked eyes, like the Sun , the Moon , the planets, and the stars . It also includes objects we can only see with telescopes or other instruments, like faraway galaxies and tiny particles.
Architecture can mean: A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. ... Knowledge of art, science, technology, and humanity.
Biological Engineering is an interdisciplinary area focusing on the application of engineering principles to analyze biological systems and to solve problems in the interfacing of such systems -- plant, animal or microbial--with human-designed machines, structures, processes and instrumentation. It is the application of principles of biology and the tools of engineering to create usable, tangible, economically viable products. It employs knowledge and expertise from a number of pure and applied sciences, such as mass and heat transfer, kinetics, biocatalysts, biomechanics, bioinformatics, separation and purification processes, bioreactor design, surface science, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and polymer science.
A biomaterial is any substance that has been engineered to interact with biological systems for a medical purpose - either a therapeutic (treat, augment, repair or replace a tissue function of the body) or a diagnostic one. As a science, biomaterials is about fifty years old. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering. It has experienced steady and strong growth over its history, with many companies investing large amounts of money into the development of new products. Biomaterials science encompasses elements of medicine, biology, chemistry, tissue engineering and materials science.
Biomedical Engineering, also referred to as Bioengineering, Bio Med or BME, is a multidisciplinary STEM field that combines biology and engineering, applying engineering principles and materials to medicine and healthcare. This field seeks to close the gap between engineering and medicine, combining the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical biological sciences to advance health care treatment, including diagnosis, monitoring, and therapy.
Biotechnology is the broad area of biology involving living systems and organisms to develop or make products, or "any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use" (UN Convention on Biological Diversity, Art. 2). Depending on the tools and applications, it often overlaps with the fields of molecular biology, bio-engineering, biomedical engineering, bio manufacturing, molecular engineering, etc. For thousands of years, humankind has used biotechnology in agriculture, food production, and medicine.
Chemical engineering is a branch of engineering that uses principles of chemistry, physics, mathematics, biology, and economics to efficiently use, produce, transform, and transport chemicals, materials, and energy. A chemical engineer designs large-scale processes that convert chemicals, raw materials, living cells, microorganisms, and energy into useful forms and products. Chemical engineers are involved in many aspects of plant design and operation, including safety and hazard assessments, process design and analysis, control engineering, chemical reaction engineering, biological engineering, construction specification, and operating instructions. Chemical engineering degree is directly linked with all the majors of various engineering disciplines.
Information and computer science (ICS) or computer and information science (CIS) is a field that emphasizes both computing and informatics, upholding the strong association between the fields of information sciences and computer sciences and treating computers as a tool rather than a field. Computer science, in contrast, is less focused on information and its different states, but more, in a very broad sense, on the use of computers – both in theory and practice – to design and implement algorithms.
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines. It is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, and it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering.
Catalysis, the modification of the rate of a chemical reaction, usually an acceleration, by addition of a substance not consumed during the reaction.
Chemical reaction engineering (reaction engineering or reactor engineering) is a specialty in chemical engineering or industrial chemistry dealing with chemical reactors. ...
A ceramic is a solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds. Common examples are earthenware, porcelain, and brick. The crystallinity of ceramic materials ranges from highly oriented to semi-crystalline, vitrified, and often completely amorphous. Most often, fired ceramics are either vitrified or semi-vitrified as is the case with earthenware, stoneware, and porcelain. Varying crystallinity and electron composition in the ionic and covalent bonds cause most ceramic materials to be good thermal and electrical insulators.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing, instrumentation, and microelectronics. Electrical engineers typically hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may have professional certification and be members of a professional body.
Environmental science is an interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical, biological and information sciences including ecology, biology, physics, chemistry, plant science, zoology, mineralogy, oceanography, limnology, soil science, geology and physical geography (geodesy), and atmospheric science to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.
Fundamental science (or basic science, pure science) is science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism. Physics is a typical fundamental science, chemistry is often included. There is a difference between fundamental science and applied science (or practical science). Fundamental science, in contrast to applied science, is defined as a fundamental knowledge it develops. The progress of fundamental science is based on well controlled experiments and careful observation. Fundamental science is dependent upon deductions from demonstrated truths, or is studied without regard to practical applications.
Industrial engineering is the branch of engineering that involves figuring out how to make or do things better. Industrial engineers are concerned with reducing production costs, increasing efficiency, improving the quality of products and services, ensuring worker health and safety, protecting the environment and complying with government regulations.
Instrumentation and control refer to the analysis, measurement, and control of industrial process variables using process control instruments and software tools such as temperature, pressure, flow, and level sensors, analyzers, electrical and mechanical actuators, Human-Machine Interfaces (HMI), Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) systems, automated control systems and more.
Marine engineering is a branch of engineering that deals with the construction as well as the operation of mechanical equipment of seagoing craft, docks, and harbor installations. The basic job of a Marine engineer is to design, build and maintain vehicles/structures used on or around water. This includes ships, aircraft carriers, submarines, sailboats, tankers etc.
The interdisciplinary field of materials science, also commonly termed materials science and engineering is the design and discovery of new materials, particularly solids. The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy. Materials science still incorporates elements of physics, chemistry, and engineering. As such, the field was long considered by academic institutions as a sub-field of these related fields. Materials science is a syncretic discipline hybridizing metallurgy, ceramics, solid-state physics, and chemistry.
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, physics, engineering mathematics, and materials science principles to design, analyze, manufacture, and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, dynamics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, and electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), and product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery, heating and cooling systems, transport systems, aircraft, watercraft, robotics, medical devices, weapons, and others.
Nuclear engineering, the field of engineering that deals with the science and application of nuclear and radiation processes. These processes include the release, control, and utilization of nuclear energy and the production and use of radiation and radioactive materials for applications in research, industry, medicine, and national security. Nuclear engineering is based on fundamental principles of physics and mathematics that describe nuclear interactions and the transport of neutrons and gamma rays. These phenomena in turn are dependent on heat transfer, fluid flow, chemical reactions, and behaviour of materials when subjected to radiation. Nuclear engineering is therefore inherently a multifaceted discipline, relying on several branches of physics, and, like the aerospace industry, it relies to a large extent on modeling and simulation for the design and analysis of complex systems that are too large and expensive to be tested.
Nano materials describe, in principle, materials of which a single unit is sized (in at least one dimension) between 1 to 1000 nano metres(10−9 meter) but usually is 1 to 100 nm (the usual definition of nano scale). Nano materials research takes a materials science-based approach to nanotechnology, leveraging advances in materials metrology and synthesis which have been developed in support of micro fabrication research. Materials with structure at the nano scale often have unique optical, electronic, or mechanical properties. Nano materials are slowly becoming commercialized and beginning to emerge as commodities.
Mining, oil and gas studies include all operations involved in the exploration, evaluation and extraction of minerals, metals, petroleum and fossil fuels from earth. Mining engineers investigate mineral resources and are responsible for planning and supervising the construction of mines. Petroleum and gas engineers evaluate crude oil and gas reservoirs and oversee drilling operations. Professional engineers in these fields are involved in all phases of extraction, from discovery, feasibility studies, optimisation of extraction, construction and maintenance of mines and wells, to the safety of the crew and evaluating effects on the environment.
Polymers are materials made of long, repeating chains of molecules. The materials have unique properties, depending on the type of molecules being bonded and how they are bonded. Some polymers bend and stretch, like rubber and polyester. ... The term polymer is often used to describe plastics, which are synthetic polymers.
Plastics is the term commonly used to describe a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic materials that are used in a huge and growing range of applications. ... The raw materials used to produce plastics are natural products such as cellulose, coal, natural gas, salt and, of course, crude oil.
Power Engineering is one of the earliest fields that has developed within Electrical Engineering. It deals with generation, transmission and distribution of electric power. Power engineers also work on a variety of power devices and on power conversion. Many power engineers are part of the large team that builds, maintains and develops the large networks that connects power generators with users of this power ("the power grid"). These engineers, who work for power utility companies of governments that maintain power grids design components for the grid, architectures for the grid and devices that either supply power to the grid or draw power from it.
Petroleum engineering is a field of engineering concerned with the activities related to the production of hydrocarbons, which can be either crude oil or natural gas. Exploration and production are deemed to fall within the upstream sector of the oil and gas industry. Exploration, by earth scientists, and petroleum engineering are the oil and gas industry's two main subsurface disciplines, which focus on maximizing economic recovery of hydrocarbons from subsurface reservoirs. Petroleum geology and geophysics focus on provision of a static description of the hydrocarbon reservoir rock, while petroleum engineering focuses on estimation of the recoverable volume of this resource using a detailed understanding of the physical behavior of oil, water and gas within porous rock at very high pressure.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, computer science, and others. Robotics deals with the design, construction, operation, and use of robots, as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing. Robots can take on any form but some are made to resemble humans in appearance. This is said to help in the acceptance of a robot in certain replicative behaviors usually performed by people. Such robots attempt to replicate walking, lifting, speech, cognition, and basically anything a human can do. Many of today's robots are inspired by nature, contributing to the field of bio-inspired robotics.
Software engineering is an engineering branch associated with development of software product using well-defined scientific principles, methods and procedures. The outcome of software engineeringis an efficient and reliable software product. Software project management has wider scope than software engineering process as it involves communication, pre and post delivery support etc.
Semiconductor is an element or compound that conducts electricity under some conditions but not others. This property of being neither a good insulator nor a good conductor makes semiconductors useful for controlling electric current. The electrical conductivity of a semiconductor depends on a variety of conditions, including applied voltage or current, or the intensity of the infrared radiation, ultraviolet radiation, or visible light on the surface. This is why semiconductors are used to make photovoltaic systems. There are many different elements that are semiconductors. Since these materials are neither prone to losing electrons(generating free electrons) nor gaining electrons, their valence shells tend to contain four electrons.
Structural engineering — a specialty within the field of civil engineering — focuses on the framework of structures, and on designing those structures to withstand the stresses and pressures of their environment and remain safe, stable and secure throughout their use. In other words, structural engineers make sure that buildings don't fall down and bridges don't collapse.